Truly the scriptures have been sufficient on how we are to observe the Lord’s Supper. But the Lord also provides us with the divine, reference and representation of that one cup. Both Luke the physician (Colossians 4:14) and Paul the apostle recorded the perfect Word (John 1:1-4) when He gives the cup to the disciples and says “This cup is the new testament in my blood” (Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25).
Please consider, however, that in Luke 22:19-20 and 1 Corinthians 11:23-25, Christ evokes three items of remembrance in His communion – His “body,” His “blood” and His “new testament.” Each of the things should be present at the Lord’s Supper.
Notice that the scripture does not say this cup is my blood, but rather “this cup is the new testament in my blood.” It was Christ’s blood that authorized (sealed) the new testament, and it removes sins of a penitent, baptized believer.
In describing the Lord’s communion, Luke and Paul (Acts 22:3) were the formally educated disciples in the new testament and emphasized the cup or the drinking vessel containing fruit of the vine (both are explicit), while Matthew and Mark emphasize the fruit of the vine in the cup.
In the Lord’s communion the fruit of the vine recalls the Christian’s remembrance to the blood of Christ that was shed for our sins; while the cup (containing fruit of the vine) evokes to Christian’s celebration to that one blood-sealed covenant of Christ.
The new testament was brought from heaven and sealed with Christ’s blood. Both cup and fruit of the vine are literal, not figurative. And together the cup and fruit of the vine symbolize the Lord’s blood and His one blood-sealed covenant.
There is one covenant between God and mankind and that one cup of the fruit of the vine on the Lord’s table symbolizes, to Christians, the covenant authorized by His blood.
In our search, did you notice that the Holy Spirit always referred to one loaf and one cup of unleavened fruit of the vine?